Broadband invisibility in the microwave range

first_img Explore further Citation: Broadband invisibility in the microwave range (2009, September 11) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-09-broadband-invisibility-microwave-range.html (PhysOrg.com) — In the series Star Trek, Klingons and Romulans have spaceships outfitted with cloaking devices that hide their presence from sight, as well as from the sensors of their rivals’ spaceships. Unlike current invisibility cloaks, which are mostly effective only over a narrow range, these fictional devices provide a broadband type of invisibility that so far has eluded modern scientists. New invisibility cloak allows object to ‘see’ out through the cloakcenter_img Now, though, a team at the Helsinki University of Technology in Finland has demonstrated broadband cloaking of cylindrical objects in the microwave regime. “This really is a helpful development,” Sergei Tretyakov tells PhysOrg.com. “Most other invisibility devices are very narrow in the range they affect.” Additionally, many invisibility cloaks are produced with the use of materials with extreme electromagnetic properties. “These are exotic materials that often have a great deal of loss and are dispersive,” Tretyakov continues.Along with Pekka Alitalo, Olli Luukkonen and Constantin Simovski, Tretyakov believes that invisibility can be obtained over a broader range of frequencies without the need for electromagnetic mumbo-jumbo. Instead, the Helsinki team makes use of a simple metallic structure made from layers. The results of their experiment can be seen in Physical Review Letters: “Broadband electromagnetic cloaking of long cylindrical objects.”“Even though we are cloaking an object from electromagnetic waves, we don’t need to use special materials with exotic electromagnetic properties to create a cloak,” Tretyakov says. “Instead, it is possible to cloak objects shaped like cylinders using simple structures made from conducting layers.” These cloaking devices are also invisible. The experiment blocking microwave frequencies was done using a waveguide. The cylinder was enclosed with conducting sheets orthogonal to the electric field vector. Tretyakov points out that this setup is ideal for antennas, since it can help weed out interference. “Radio astronomy can probably benefit greatly from this, as you can create support for an antenna, and block out interference. In fact, the cloaking device itself could be an antenna.” One of the advantages of this cloaking device is that it can conduct an electrical current, and offers low loss. Additionally, the fact that it is made from normal metal means that the setup tested in Helsinki would be simpler and less expensive to make than some of the electromagnetic cloaking devices currently being tested.For the most part, this experiment shows a type of broadband invisibility that could be achieved in communications and frequencies dealing mainly with radio. However, Tretyakov and his colleagues also performed a simulation of their cloaking setup in the optical range. “We couldn’t so far make an experiment in the optical range,” he admits, “but our setup should be scalable. And our simulation shows that this should be possible to do with visible objects, not just hiding them in the microwave range.”“Right now we are looking for a little help to set up optical experiments,” Tretykov says. “We want to make the experiment, and it should be possible. But it is a little more complex than using the microwaves, and requires a little more time and funding to set up. But technologically, we should be able to do it.”Perhaps that advanced broadband cloaking device is a little closer than we thought.More Information: Tretyakov, et. al. “Broadband electromagnetic cloaking of long cylindrical objects,” Physical Review Letters (2009). Available online: http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.103905. Copyright 2009 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Microsoft adds a collaboration feature to the Word Web App

first_img Of course; users who really needed the feature were most likely already using Google Docs. Since the creation of Google Docs in 2007, three years before Microsoft decided to launch a web apps suite, the company has through the use of judicious acquisitions of companies create a full-featured web based office suite that allows for multi-user collaboration and more specifically the collaborative editing feature that Microsoft has just announced. So comparisons will undoubtedly be made between the two setups in the next few days and weeks as people compare the existing product to Microsoft’s later offering. Not that these types of comparisons have gone well for Microsoft in the past, think about the Zune and the Windows phone if you want to see how that has gone for them in the past. The system allows users to be notified if the document is being edited by someone else. Sadly, it also locks you out of the section of the document that person is working on, so making and actual changes at the same time is still not possible, which seems a little antithetical, at least not until after they save. The system was used to make the announcement on the Windows Live blog. Citation: Microsoft adds a collaboration feature to the Word Web App (2011, July 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-07-microsoft-collaboration-feature-word-web.html © 2010 PhysOrg.com More information: Windows team blog This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.center_img Microsoft looks to ‘cloud’ with Office 2010 Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — Microsoft is looking to make a move into Google’s office suite functionality on the web. They announced on the Windows Live blog that they are adding a new feature to the Word Web App and that is real time collaboration. While this feature already existed in two of the Microsoft products, Excel and OneNote, it was one of the most requested features for the Word Web App.last_img read more

Panasonic hands control of home appliances to Android phones

first_img © 2012 Phys.Org More information: panasonic.co.jp/corp/news/offi … 21-9/en120821-9.html Citation: Panasonic hands control of home appliances to Android phones (2012, August 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-08-panasonic-home-appliances-android.html Home appliances get ‘smart’ at CES Panasonic plans to release first the refrigerator app next month and the other five appliances in October or later. Panasonic has no details on when the appliances with their apps will be available elsewhere than just Japan.The point of the launch is to enable Android users to remotely turn on or control any compatible home appliance. The six home appliances are air conditioner, refrigerator, washing/drying machine, body composition meter, activity meter and blood-pressure meter.Do consumers really want to go to lengths of checking and measuring exactitude in cooking, washing, and storing foods? Or will they see this as an added layer of complexity they can do without? Signs are that Panasonic is tapping further into the market base of people eager for smarter control and customization of home tasks for clean-energy and power-saving cost cuts. In June, Panasonic started its cloud services for a microwave oven and steam rice cooker. Owners take their Android smartphones to look for recipes and program cooking instructions.-In the new lineup, the benefits are promoted as being able to monitor energy savings and possibly cut energy costs. The washing machine app lets the user set the washing cycle with the smartphone. When the phone touches the machine, appropriate amounts of the detergent and softener calculated from the amount of laundry are displayed on the screen of the machine. When the user drops detergent in the machine, amounts are displayed on the screen.Refrigerator data displayed on a smartphone can check for power consumption efficiency. Collected data is sent to the server. Air conditioner users can control their air conditioners remotely from outside the home. The new service will also allow owners of Panasonic healthcare products to create graphs tracking their weight and calories consumed by everyday activities. The point is to make it easy to manage healthcare data. “Panasonic’s smart solutions are designed to make the user’s everyday life more comfortable, convenient and energy efficient,” said the company announcement released earlier this week.The appliances affected include Panasonic’s X Series room air conditioners, a top-mount refrigerator, drum-type washer-dryer ,body composition monitor, calorie meter and blood pressure monitor.The new air conditioners will also work with Apple’s iPhones as well as Android phones.center_img Explore further (Phys.org)—In a cloud-service announcement this week, Panasonic is placing the smartphone into the center of devices for cooking and washing in the home, to be used in conjunction with Panasonic compatible home appliances. The consumer electronics company has launched its own Panasonic Smart App to go to work in Japan. To use the software, it is necessary to become a member of the “Club Panasonic.” The Panasonic Smart App will allow Android smartphone owners hooking up the club to control their smart home appliances just by downloading the free app to their smartphones. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Research trio crack RSA encryption keys by listening to computer noise

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org) —A trio of researchers in Israel has discovered that it is possible to crack 4096-bit RSA encryption keys using a microphone to listen to high-pitch noises generated by internal computer components. Adi Shamir (co-inventor of RSA), Daniel Genkin and Eran Tromer have published a research paper describing the technique on a Tel Aviv University server. More information: RSA Key Extraction via Low-Bandwidth Acoustic Cryptanalysis: www.tau.ac.il/~tromer/papers/acoustic-20131218.pdf Computers make noises, the researchers explain, far beyond the whirring of the fan. The CPU, for example, emits a high pitched noise as it operates, fluctuating depending on which operations it is performing—other components do likewise. Suspecting that they might be able to exploit this characteristic of computers, the researchers set about creating software to interpret noise data obtained using simple microphones and very little other equipment. They also focused exclusively on trying to achieve one single feat: deciphering an RSA encryption key. After much trial and effort, the researchers found it could be done without much effort.Listening and detecting the noise made by a computer as it processes a single character in an encryption key would be impossible, of course, so the researchers devised a method that causes the noise to be repeated enough times in a row to enable capture of its signal. And that can only happen if the attacker is able to send a cyphertext to the machine that is to be attacked and have it processed. The cyphertext contains code that causes looping. By listening to how the computer processes the cyphertext, the researchers can map the noises made by the computer as it crunches different characters, thereby allowing encryption keys sent by others to be cracked.What’s perhaps most frightening about this method is how easily it can be ported to various machines. The researchers found, for example, that by using a laptop and simple hardware and software they were able to crack encryption keys on a second laptop. Next, they did the same thing using a cell phone as the listening device. They suggest it could also be packaged completely in software and sent out as malware, hacking encryption keys on infected devices and sending them back to the hacker.As a side-note, the researchers also found that low-bandwidth attacks on computers are also possible by measuring the electrical potential of a computer’s chassis while the circuitry is busy doing its work. Researchers at Toshiba design quantum network for secure communications Explore further © 2013 Phys.org Physical setup of a key recovery attack. A mobile phone (Samsung Note II) is placed 30 cm from a target laptop. The phone’s internal microphone points towards the laptop’s fan vents. Full key extraction is possible in this configuration and distance. Credit: Daniel Genkin et al. Citation: Research trio crack RSA encryption keys by listening to computer noise (2013, December 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-12-trio-rsa-encryption-keys-noise.htmllast_img read more

Improving electron transfer in enzymatic biofuel cells

first_img Citation: Improving electron transfer in enzymatic biofuel cells (2018, June 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-06-electron-enzymatic-biofuel-cells.html A team of researchers with members from institutions in Singapore, China and the U.K. has found a way to improve electron transfer in enzymatic biofuel cells. In their paper published in the journal Nature Energy, they describe their technique and how well it works. Huajie Yin and Zhiyong Tang with Griffith University in Australia and the National Center for Nanoscience and Technology in China, offer a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. Journal information: Nature Energy Explore further Enzymatic biofuel cells are, as their name implies, a type of fuel cell based on enzymes as catalysts instead of expensive metals. Because of their potential, scientists have been eager to find ways to overcome problems that have inhibited commercial applications—they are expected to be much cheaper to make than those now in use. Currently, enzymatic biofuel cells are inefficient, have a short lifespan and do not produce much power. These problems, the researchers note, are due to the difficulty in wiring enzymes and electrode surfaces. In this effort, they claim to have overcome some of that difficulty by combining two previously developed methods aimed at solving the problem. The first method involves connecting an enzyme to the surface of an electrode in such a way as to allow the electrons to tunnel between the two—it is called direct electron transfer. The second method involves a mediator that is used help the transfer—it is called, quite naturally, mediated electron transfer.The researchers combined the two approaches to take advantage of the benefits of each. They used laccase as the enzyme and designed a transfer system that connected to a special type of carbon nanotube surface to further improve electron transfer. The system was made of three parts, an ABTS compound (to serve as a mediator), situated between a polypyrrole group at one end and a pyrene group at the other.In testing their technique, the team found that the maximum OOR current density reached as high as 2.45 mA/cm2 and their device was able to keep half of its ORR current for 120 days. They suggest their results show promise and expect further improvements as they refine the technique. More information: Kamal Elouarzaki et al. Coupling orientation and mediation strategies for efficient electron transfer in hybrid biofuel cells, Nature Energy (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41560-018-0166-4AbstractEnzymes are promising electrocatalysts for electron transfer (ET) in many biological processes. Strategies to enhance ET between enzymes and electroactive surfaces include orientation and immobilization of the enzymes and electron mediation. Here, we develop a strategy to couple orientation and electron mediation on electrodes based on carbon nanotubes. This is achieved by the synthesis of a redox mediator that contains an enzyme-orientation site (pyrene), an electron-carrier redox mediator (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS)) and an electropolymerizable monomer (pyrrole). The coupling of an enzymatic orientation and a mediated ET in the same chemical structure (pyrrole–ABTS–pyrene (pyrr–ABTS–pyr)) provides a much-improved performance in the bioelectrocatalysis. We demonstrate two fuel cells for the synthesized redox mediator. In a proton-exchange membrane hydrogen/air fuel cell and in a membraneless fuel cell, the pyrr–ABTS–pyr biocathode provides a power density of 1.07 mW cm−2 and 7.9 mW cm−2, respectively. The principle of coupling an enzyme orientation and a redox mediator allows a great variety of mediators to be engineered and provides vast possibilities for the development of fuel cells.center_img Study explores hybrid ultrasmall gold nanocluster for enzymatic fuel cells This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The as-designed poly(pyrr)–ABTS–pyr film. a, Representations of Trametes versicolor Lac with the hydrophobic binding pocket oriented towards the bottom of the page and the T1 copper site located on one side of the enzyme at the base of a hydrophobic pocket, which acts as the binding site of the enzyme substrate. The remaining three copper atoms are bound on the T2 and T3 sites in a triangular cluster approximately 12 Å away towards the other side of the enzyme, where oxygen binds. b, Graphical depiction of the ET from the electrode towards Lac through poly(pyrr)–ABTS–pyr film. Credit: (c) 2018 Nature Energy (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41560-018-0166-4 © 2018 Tech Xplorelast_img read more

A different love tale

first_imgThe 1967 black and white classic Jaatiswar had mega star Uttam Kumar and Tanuja in the lead. The same characters are now reprised by Prosenjit Chatterjee and Jisshu Sengupta, but with a brand new storyline.Jaatiswar is the story of Rohit, a Gujarati brought up in Bengal, who falls in love with a woman who is Bengali with a vengeance – Mahamaya Banerjee. She is obsessed with the Bengali language, hates using English words, loves Bengali poetry, songs and believes in the intellectual superiority of the race. Naturally, she rejects his proposal as he can’t even pronounce her name properly. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’When further pushed, she sets a condition and challenges him to write, compose and sing a perfect Bengali song for her, upon which she would consider his proposal. After this, their paths diverge. Mahamaya becomes a RJ who works for a radio station which eventually is entrusted the responsibility of organising a rock concert involving bands from India and Bangladesh. Rohit meanwhile goes to Portugal to study colonial history, and decides to do it on Heynesman Antony, a Portuguese who was born in 19th Century Bengal, who learnt the Bengali language and went on to become of the leading minstrels of that time. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixIn his fieldwork, he meets a mysterious man, Kushawl Hajra in Chandannagore, Antony’s birthplace. He claims to be Antony’s reincarnation whose memory from the last birth is overpowering his present life memory at a fast rate leading to identity replacement. Rohit starts recording his narrative of his past life as Antony for his dissertation. From here we see a journey of two men separated by one and a half century – both learning an alien language and going on to write songs overcoming all odds, Rohit and Antony. How Rohit woos Mahamaya with the perfect Bengali song, and how Kushawl deals with his psychological disorder forms the rest of this musical-reincarnation drama-biopic -love story. Talking about the film Chatterjee said, ‘I’m really looking forward to the release of this film. Antony Firingee is an iconic character and I’m glad that I got an opportunity to play this character. The storyline however is entirely different from the earlier film. All I can say is that this film has a whole new surprise track weaved in the storyline. The soul of the film is same- it is a musical. The music of this film is divine and I have experimented a lot with my look. In fact, it is a very well researched look.’The film is slated to release in more than 20 cities in India – Bombay, Pune, Thane, Vashi, Delhi, Bangalore, Jamshedpur, Dhanbad, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Baroda, Jaipur, Chandigarh, Lucknow, Patna, Indore, Raipur, Guwahati, Bhubaneshwar and Chennai. Outside Bengal, the film will be released with English subtitles.When: Premiering 17 January, pan Indialast_img read more

One killed 7 others critically injured in bus accident near Kasba

first_imgKolkata: Two minibuses racing against each other to pick up extra passengers once again claimed the life of a 50-year-old man and injured eight others of whom some are critically ill.The incident took place near Acropolis Mall at Kasba on Tuesday morning. A Howrah bound minibus from Anandapur was competing with another minibus of the same route when the bus driver lost control over the vehicle and eventually hit a Mercedes car parked by the side of the road and then rammed into two auto-rickshaws which were there at the stand. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsBiswanath Haldar (50), a resident of Noanadanga area was standing by the side of the car waiting to board a bus when he was hit.Haldar who runs a decorators business suffered critical injuries after being hit by the speeding bus. Seven others including a woman who were standing by the side of the road also suffered injuries. An on duty police sergeant who was standing at the spot had a narrow escape. The speeding bus also ran over the pavement injuring some people who were standing there. The health condition of the woman is stated to be critical. The incident created traffic jam in the area for a while. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedHaldar and other injured passengers were rushed to a nearby private hospital where Haldar succumbed to his injuries while the others have been undergoing treatment in the hospital. The news of Haldar’s death has set a pal of gloom in his family as he was only the bread earner. According to police, there were none inside the Mercedes car when it was hit by the bus. The owner of the car Vinod Sharma, a Salt Lake resident went to the Passport office by parking the vehicle on the side of the road. The rear portion of the costly car was completely damaged in the accident. Two auto-rickshaws were also damaged in the accident. Eyewitnesses told the police that the accident occurred when the killer vehicle was competing with another minibus of the same route. Locals expressed their unhappiness over the unabated incidents of racing of buses which often lead to death. Senior police officers reached the spot immediately after the accident. The bus driver has fled the spot leaving the vehicle there. Police have seized the bus and are yet to arrest the driver.Meanwhile, an auto-rickshaw driver has been arrested by the Bidhannagar police after he broke the wind screen of a state-run AC bus. The incident took place near Baguiati More on the VIP road. The accused told the police that the bus driver was not giving him any scope to overtake it. He stopped the bus and ransacked a portion. One passenger was reportedly injured when the wind screen was broken.last_img read more

Myths and facts about dental care

first_imgIs scaling bad for teeth? Are cavities caused only by sugar? An expert separates fact from myth.Tanvir Singh, consultant orthodontist at Dentem, the Dental and Orthodontic Clinic, busts a few myths around dental care:Myth 1:Scaling is not good for teeth.Fact: Scaling removes tartar and keeps teeth and gums healthy. Scaling and deep cleaning of gums prevent the problem of bad breath and bleeding gums. Thus, scaling is beneficial for teeth and gums. One should get professional cleaning done by a dentist with a proper ultrasonic scaler. Also, getting extensive scaling (more than required) done is harmful. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Myth 2:Only sugar causes cavities.Fact: Cavities occur when bacteria produce acids in the mouth. The process can begin by any carbohydrate that you consume. That includes sugar, fruits, vegetables, rice and bread. To reduce chances of tooth decay, one should not only practice good dental care but also limit the intake of acidic products.Myth 3:Teeth whitening is harmful as it damages enamel.Fact: Technique like Zoom Whitening works by exfoliating stains from one’s teeth to lighten them and bring back their natural colour. It is the simplest and safest procedure as a product is used by dentists that is devoid of bleaching agents and chemicals. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixMyth 4:Brushing your bleeding gums is bad.Fact: Brushing is not only good for teeth, but also for your gums and tongue. Brushing these areas helps get rid of plaque which is what causes inflammation and eventually gum disease. One should not brush too hard if they have sensitive gums. One must not use a hard toothbrush on bleeding gums.Myth 5:Using sugarless chewing gum after meal can replace brushing. Fact: Nothing can replace proper brushing technique. And in case you want to use sugarless chewing gum, do not chew it for more than 10 minutes.last_img read more

SC verdict on panchayat poll victory of democracy people Mamata

first_imgKolkata: Dubbing the Supreme Court verdict on West Bengal panchayat poll as a “victory of democracy and of the people”, Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee today slammed the BJP, the Congress and the CPI(M) for “defaming” the state through false propaganda. It was a planned move by the three political parties to gain political advantage, Banerjee said. Welcoming the Supreme Court’s verdict, she said these parties had deliberately resorted to false propaganda. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life “I think it is a victory of democracy and victory of the people. I want to dedicate it to the people of the country,” Banerjee told reporters at the state secretariat. She said the CPI(M) and the BJP moving the Supreme Court seeking cancellation of elections in over 20,000 uncontested local body seats in West Bengal had brought bad name to the state. “It was a planned move by the CPI(M), the Congress and the BJP to malign the state and they have been doing it continuously,” Banerjee, also the Trinamool Congress chief, said. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killed The Supreme Court has turned down the pleas of the CPI(M) and the BJP seeking cancellation of elections on over 20,000 uncontested local body seats in West Bengal. All the uncontested seats were won by candidates of the ruling Trinamool Congress (TMC). The CPI(M) and the BJP, which opposed the contention of the state government, state poll panel and the TMC, had alleged that West Bengal did not witness a free and fair election and the candidates of these two parties were stopped from filing nomination papers. Elections were held in phases for 48,650 posts in Gram Panchayats, 825 posts in Zilla Parishads and 9,217 posts in Panchayat Samitis and the TMC won about 34 per cent seats uncontested.last_img read more

Choir singing helps to fight cancer

first_imgChoir singing can be useful in fighting against deadly diseases, reveals a study adding that the group activity can help put people in the best possible position to receive treatment, maintain remission and support cancer patients According British researchers, singing in a choir for an hour is associated with significant reduction in stress hormones — cortisol and increase in quantities of cytokines — proteins of the immune system, which can boost the body’s ability to fight serious illness. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting'”We have been building a body of evidence over the past six years to show that singing in a choir can have a range of social, emotional and psychological benefits and now we can see it has biological effects too,” said study co-author Ian Lewis from Tenovus Cancer Care in Britain. “This is the first time it’s been demonstrated that the immune system can be affected by singing. It’s really exciting and could enhance the way we support people with cancer in the future,” Lewis added in the paper published in the journal ecancermedicalscience. The findings suggested that singing activity could reduce some of this stress-induced suppression, helping to improve wellbeing and quality of life amongst patients.last_img read more

The Only Civilian Casualty at Gettysburg – The Unlucky Fate of Jennie

first_imgFor three days in July 1863, Union and Confederate forces clashed in the largest and bloodiest battle of the Civil War, at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Casualties have been estimated at more than 51,000, including 7,863 dead. Yet as devastating as those numbers were, only one civilian was killed as a direct result of the fighting: Jennie Wade, a brave, kind-hearted young woman who had the misfortune of being in the wrong place at the wrong time.Hancock at Gettysburg by Thure de Thulstrup – a depiction of Pickett’s Charge led by Major General George Hancock.She was born Mary Virginia Wade (“Ginnie” to family and friends) in 1843, but because of a newspaper article which misspelled her name, she would come to be known to the world as Jennie.Like many women during the war, the twenty-year-old and her mother, Mrs. Mary Wade, were left fending for themselves, working as seamstresses to earn a living. For additional income they also took on the role of caregivers during the week to a six-year-old disabled boy named Isaac Brinkerhoff, while his own mother worked away from home.Mary Virginia “Jennie” WadeJennie’s father, however, wasn’t off fighting the Confederates. A former tailor, with a knack for getting into scrapes with the law (embezzlement being among his misdeeds), James Wade had been declared legally insane and committed to an asylum.Early 1900s photograph of Jennie Wade’s house.A few days before the Battle of Gettysburg began, as a vanguard of Confederate troops rattled through Gettysburg helping themselves to supplies, Jennie’s sister, Georgiana Wade McClellan, had given birth to her first child, Lewis Kenneth. Mary went to look after Georgiana and the newborn, leaving Isaac in the care of Jennie. The McClellan house was five blocks away, on Baltimore Street. The townsfolk were frightened, but thought that the armies had passed them by.View of Gettysburg in 1863 by Mathew Brady. U.S. National Archives and Records AdministrationWhen the Union Army rolled into town on the evening of June 30th, Jennie became concerned for the safety of her ward and took him to join her mother at the McClellan house. Fighting broke out just a few hundred yards away on July 1, 1863, in what would become the edge of the main battlefield, leaving Jennie and her family caught in the crossfire.The confrontation continued the following day, with stray bullets and shells shattering windows and damaging the home’s brick exterior. Many of the town’s residents hid in the darkness of their cellars. Jennie, undaunted, ventured outside to offer food and water to the famished Union soldiers.I’ve Got A Secret – Samuel J. SeymourOn the morning of July 3rd, Jennie was in the pantry of the McClellan house kneading dough to make more bread for the Union soldiers. A flurry of gunfire flew through the air, but all it took was a single bullet to pass through two doors, striking Mary Virginia Wade in the shoulder and penetrating her heart. She died instantly.The birthplace of Jennie Wade on Breckenridge Street, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.Her sister Georgia let out a horrified scream that brought Union soldiers racing into the house. They led the family members to safety in the cellar. Jennie’s body was buried in the backyard of her sister’s home.Civil War era spinning wheel owned by Jennie Wade’s sister. Photo by Julie CC By 2.0On the following day, July 4th, as the Confederate army retreated southward, Jennie’s mother would finish her daughter’s uncompleted task: baking and distributing loaves of bread for the departing Union soldiers.Six months later, Jennie’s remains were moved to the cemetery of the German Reformed Church. She was praised, deservedly so, as a hero. A Harrisburg newspaper described her as “a lady of most excellent qualities of head and heart.” Not all of the press was positive. Oddly enough, some accused Jennie of being sympathetic to the Confederate cause.Exterior of the Jennie Wade House and Museum, Gettysburg, PA – November 19, 2011.The reason for the allegations is unclear, though some believe her father’s less-than-stellar reputation — along with the fact that she and her sister were named after Southern states — may have fueled the unfavorable talk. A 1917 book, The True Story of ‘Jennie’ Wade: A Gettysburg Maid, put the rumors to rest, branding the malicious gossip as unable to “stand the searchlight of analytical examination, nor the acid tests of proof.”In November 1865, Jennie’s remains would find a permanent and dignified resting place at Gettysburg Evergreen Cemetery. A monument, reading Killed July 3, 1863 While Making Bread For The Union Soldiers, marks her grave, as does an American flag flown day and night — a patriotic honor she shares with Betsy Ross.Wade monument in Evergreen Cemetery.A short distance from the grave lies Corporal Johnston Hastings Skelly Jr., a Union soldier who was engaged to Jennie at the time of her death. In another cruel twist of fate, Skelley, who had been wounded and captured at the Battle of Winchester in Virginia, tried reaching out to his fiancé through Wesley Culp, a childhood friend who was now a Confederate soldier.Read another story from us: The Mass Exodus of Confederates to Brazil after the Civil WarCulp, however, would be killed in Gettysburg before he could deliver the message. Skelly would die on July 12, before news of Jennie could reach him. Neither would learn of the other’s death.Barbara Stepko is a New Jersey-based freelance editor and writer who has contributed to AARP magazine and the Wall Street Journal.last_img read more

Forrest Gumps Iconic Run Across the Country was Inspired by a Real

first_imgIn 1994, the movie Forrest Gump, which detailed a man’s life and his fairly coincidental brushes with many pivotal people and circumstances of the 1960s, was released. Forrest was a character who touched just about everyone who saw the movie. While he didn’t have the brightest mind, he was a character of surprisingly insightful wisdom and enormous kindness of heart. Throughout the movie, many of the things that Forrest did were, either directly or indirectly, the result of his abiding love for his childhood friend and sweetheart, Jenny. Jenny, who only sees Forrest as a dear friend, is a troubled young woman.At one point in the film, Jenny comes to live with Forrest for a while, and Forrest says it’s the happiest time in his life. He asks Jenny to marry him, and she refuses, causing Forrest to wonder why she doesn’t love him.Tom Hanks as the title character on the film set of Forrest Gump. Photo by lakesbutta CC BY-SA 3.0Later that night, she comes to his bed, makes love with him, and avows her love for Forrest, only to sneak out before he wakes and disappear again. Her departure crushes Forrest, and in utter pain and despair, he begins running back and forth across the United States.When people he encounters ask him why he’s doing it, he just says that he felt like running — and he clearly does, since he doesn’t just run across the country once, but at least four times.Over the years, a number of people have gone across the United States on foot, even before Forrest Gump hit the theaters, but Forrest’s remarkable multi-trip run was inspired by one particular person. A person whose words were used verbatim in the film when Forrest says “When I got tired, I slept. When I got hungry, I ate. When I had to go, you know, I went.”Actor Tom Hanks in the movie ‘Forrest Gump’ by Robert Zemeckisin 1994. Photo by MEGA/Gamma-Rapho via Getty ImagesLouis Michael Figueroa ran across the country for the first time when he was just 16 years old, back in 1982, according to television station KHQ.Figueroa, a high school sophomore, made a promise to a 10-year-old cancer patient named Bobby, who was struggling with his feelings about his condition and the probability that his life would soon be over. To give Bobby hope, the teen promised to run across the entire county, raising money and awareness for the American Cancer Society.Beautiful scenic highway in Monument Valley Tribal Park in Arizona-Utah border, U.S.A. at sunset.He left New Brunswick, New Jersey, heading west, and 60 days later Figueroa arrived in San Francisco, making him both the fastest and youngest runner to ever cross the U.S. on foot. Fourteen years later he did it again. His brother, Jimmy, had been diagnosed with AIDS.Figueroa, who was himself in recovery from leukemia, walked from Bangor, Maine, to San Diego to raise awareness about Jimmy’s disease. He made the walk alone, and with only the equipment he could fit in his backpack, as a way of symbolizing the solitary plight of HIV-AIDS sufferers, gathering money for AIDS programs as he went.In late January of 2005, the now 43-year-old Figueroa decided to make his longest trek yet, in support of protecting children from sexual abuse. This trip was his most personal, as he told the Lompoc Record during an interview, as he, himself, was molested as a boy. He started from an abused children’s shelter in Tucson, Arizona, intending to circle to country and walk 7,500 miles.The circular route he chose was meant to symbolize the chain of abuse he hopes to help put an end to. About six months and 3,000 miles into his trek, Figueroa was forced to stop walking because of a combination of legal issues and a resurgence of his leukemia, which kept him from finishing his walk for five years.Read another story from us: Citizen Kane – Historic Achievements and Political Sabotage of the ‘Greatest Film Ever Made’In 2010 Figueroa picked up his walk from the place that he had to interrupt it, and continued on his way. He told the Record that he would stop walking a mile from where he began, and let his children, volunteers, and supporters finish it for him, to show that one man can only go so far, and then the community must step in. Not only was this intrepid activist the inspiration for Forrest’s run, but I think he also has the same enormous heart.last_img read more

Johnny Cashs Iconic Song A Boy Named Sue was Written by a

first_imgJonhy Cash’s “A Boy Named Sue” is one of his most iconic songs, which won a couple Grammys for him in 1970. After almost 50 years it is still revered and referred to in popular culture. The story of its origin is what is less widely known, and it includes two more fascinating people in it.Shel Silverstein was the author of the song, he wrote the lyrics for it and performed it in his authentic, loud manner.Cash performing in Bremen, West Germany, in September 1972. Photo by Heinrich Klaffs CC BY-SA 2.0He is known as an author of children’s books, which he illustrated himself. His most famous works are The Giving Tree, Where the Sidewalk Ends and The Missing Peace.His style is characterized by humor and wit often tackling very deep philosophical matters. He is, therefore, read both by children and adults.Silverstein was a person with many interests and talents, a writer and a musician. Before being acknowledged as a primarily children’s writer he worked as a cartoonist for Playboy.Shel Silverstein and Johnny Cash April 1, 1970. Photo by ABC Photo Archives/ABC via Getty ImagesHis work was first published in a magazine in 1956. From then on, he worked for them for 40 years all the while working on his books for youngsters.He wrote the famous song about a boy named Sue and performed at The Guitar Pull in Tennessee where Johnny Cash and his wife June first heard it.The song Silverstein wrote was deeply inspired by another fascinating figure, Jean Shepherd, mostly known for the 1983 film A Christmas Story which was based on his writings.Johnny Cash and June Carter Cash.Silverstein and Shepherd were longtime friends, greatly inspiring each other. Silverstein dedicated his 1961 book Uncle Shelby’s ABZ Book to Shepherd.Likewise, according to Rolling Stone, Shepherd referred to his friend as “the only continuously funny man I have ever known.”Shepherd always complained about his childhood and having to deal with the fact that he has a female name. This inspired Silverstein to write a song about a boy named Sue.Cash in 1969.The song was never meant to reach a broader audience as it basically tells the story of a boy that wants to kill his father for giving him a girl’s name.Johnny, upon the insistence of June who had a feeling that the song will be a perfect fit for him, performed it first in San Quentin prison.The convicts listening to it were enjoying it so much that Johnny decided to continue performing it. This first performance was a complete improvisation, it can also be heard that Johnny laughs at the wittiness of Silverstein’s words.Johnny Cash and June Carter.His first official performance after deciding to publish it in 1969 was on The Johnny Cash Show. On the 1st of April 1970, symbolically, Silverstein and Cash got together to perform the song on Cash’s show.After talking about Silverstein’s writings and the importance the song played for Cash and his career the two of them start walking to the other part of the studio already playing their guitars.Cass Elliot Johnny Cash, 1969.They started playing the famous hit together, Johnny in his usual whispering voice and Silverstein almost shouting.Silverstein continues to talk about his relationship with his father and spontaneously sings “Daddy, What If”, another Grammy-winning song performed by Bobby Bare and his son.Johnny Cash.The famous song did not only inspire Johnny and his wife, but other musicians have also referenced it multiple times, Stone Temple Pilots and Red Hot Chili Peppers among them.Besides, it has been featured in numerous Hollywood movies and sitcoms.It managed to become one of the most referenced songs in the history of music. Even President Nixon requested Cash to sing it at the White House.Read another story from us: When Johnny Cash was targeted by racists“A Boy Named Sue” was not the only Silverstein poem performed as a country song. His lyrics were made into “Wrong Ideas” by Brenda Lee, “Hey Loretta” by Loretta Lynn, “The Taker” by Waylon Jennings, as well as another Johnny Cash song “25 Minutes to Go”.last_img read more

WATCH JJ Watt got into a snowball fight with some neighborhood kids

first_imgJ.J. Watt catches tons of heat for being inauthentic and cheesy, but every time you see him with young fans, he seems like a nice enough guy.Watt recently posted a video to Snapchat of him and his brother being fan friendly during a snowball fight against some kids from his neighborhood. The video is 8 minutes long and has a Blair Witch Project feel to it, but the good news for Texans fans is that Watt’s back seems to be rounding into shape.People that love Watt will love the video, people that don’t will hate it. That pretty much sums up J.J. Watt.last_img

Gordon Hayward to join the Celtics

first_imgThe Hayward signing is huge for Boston GM Danny Ainge, who had increasingly come under fire for moving slowly so far this offseason, including passing on potential trades for Jimmy Butler and Paul George.Landing the biggest remaining free agent in Hayward should help quell some of that criticism, for now. Advertisement After an afternoon of rumors and false starts, Gordon Hayward has officially announced he is signing with the Boston Celtics, via an article in The Player’s Tribune. Hayward thanked the Utah fans, but said his best chance to win a championship at this stage in his career was to re-unite with his former Butler coach Brad Stevens.“And now I’ve decided to sign with the Boston Celtics.”According to Yahoo’s Shams Charania, Hayward has agreed to a four-year/$128 million max deal.Free agent Gordon Hayward has agreed to a four-year, $128M deal with the Boston Celtics, league source tells The Vertical.— Shams Charania (@ShamsCharania) July 4, 2017last_img read more

Better Late Than Never Target Accelerating Program to Detect CreditCard Fraud

first_img Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. Growing a business sometimes requires thinking outside the box. Register Now » Free Webinar | Sept. 9: The Entrepreneur’s Playbook for Going Global 3 min read February 4, 2014 Target says it is fast-tracking a program the will install chip-enabled smart cards to protect against cyber theft in stores across the U.S. The retailer, the third largest in America, was slammed with an extensive data breach during the holiday season that affected upwards of 70 million shoppers.In an op-ed published in The Hill yesterday, John Mulligan, Target’s chief financial officer, said that they company aims to have chip-enabled smart cards in stores by early 2015, six months earlier than orginally planned.The smart cards, Mulligan wrote, “have tiny microprocessor chips that encrypt the personal data shared with the sales terminals used by merchants…Even if a thief manages to steal a smart card number, it’s useless without the chip.”Related: Make It Stop: Yahoo Reports Coordinated Email HackThe adoption of the system, he continued, would be “one step American businesses could now take that would dramatically improve the security of all credit and debit cards.”Mulligan’s op-ed was conveniently timed. Today, he appears before the Senate Judiciary Committee to explain exactly how hackers gained access to payment data and/or personal information for millions of shoppers. (Congressmen have already blamed the attack on weak passwords in Target’s point-of-sale system).If it had been implemented earlier, smart card technology — which Mulligan noted is already widely used in the U.K. and Canada, where it has dramatically reduced credit card theft – could have prevented a lot of headaches (around 70 million, if I had to put a number on it).Related: Why Your Small Business Is at Risk of a Hack AttackSo why wasn’t it? The short answer: It was too expensive. “At Target, we’ve been working for years towards adoption of this technology,” Mulligan wrote. “About 10 years ago, Target piloted an early generation of the chip-enabled technology on the Target VISA REDcard, with mixed results.” Smart chips cost significantly more than store card-readers, so Target stopped the project.In his op-ed, Mulligan placed some of the responsibility – as well as some of the blame – on other retailers and companies who have also failed to install smart card technology.”If we truly want to prevent this from happening again, the business community must move together. No one company or industry can solve this challenge on its own. Strengthening consumer protection requires a coordinated response,” he wrote.” This is a shared responsibility.”Related: Target Chief Apologizes as ‘Holiday Hack’ Claims Yet Another Victimlast_img read more

CIA Sought to Hack Apple iPhones for Nearly a Decade

first_img This hands-on workshop will give you the tools to authentically connect with an increasingly skeptical online audience. Enroll Now for Free This story originally appeared on Reuters CIA researchers have worked for nearly a decade to break the security protecting Apple phones and tablets, investigative news site The Intercept reported on Tuesday, citing documents obtained from NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden.The report cites top-secret U.S. documents that suggest U.S. government researchers had created a version of XCode, Apple’s software application development tool, to create surveillance backdoors into programs distributed on Apple’s App Store.The Intercept has in the past published a number of reports from documents released by whistleblower Snowden. The site’s editors include Glenn Greenwald, who won a Pulitzer Prize for his work in reporting on Snowden’s revelations, and by Oscar-winning documentary maker Laura Poitras.It said the latest documents, which covered a period from 2006 to 2013, stop short of proving whether U.S. intelligence researchers had succeeded in breaking Apple’s encryption coding, which secures user data and communications.Efforts to break into Apple products by government security researchers started as early as 2006, a year before Apple introduced its first iPhone and continued through the launch of the iPad in 2010 and beyond, The Intercept said.Breeching Apple security was part of a top-secret program by the U.S. government, aided by British intelligence researchers, to hack “secure communications products, both foreign and domestic” including Google Android phones, it said.Silicon Valley technology companies have in recent months sought to restore trust among consumers around the world that their products have not become tools for widespread government surveillance of citizens.Last September, Apple strengthened encryption methods for data stored on iPhones, saying the changes meant the company no longer had any way to extract customer data on the devices, even if a government ordered it to with a search warrant. Silicon Valley rival Google Inc said shortly afterward that it also planned to increase the use of stronger encryption tools.Both companies said the moves were aimed at protecting the privacy of users of their products and that this was partly a response to wide scale U.S. government spying on Internet users revealed by Snowden in 2013.An Apple spokesman pointed to public statements by Chief Executive Tim Cook on privacy, but declined to comment further.”I want to be absolutely clear that we have never worked with any government agency from any country to create a backdoor in any of our products or services,” Cook wrote in a statement on privacy and security published last year. “We have also never allowed access to our servers. And we never will.”Leaders including U.S. President Barack Obama and British Prime Minister David Cameron have expressed concern that turning such privacy-enhancing tools into mass market features could prevent governments from tracking militants planning attacks. The CIA did not immediately reply to a request for comment.(Editing by Jeremy Gaunt) 3 min read Free Workshop | August 28: Get Better Engagement and Build Trust With Customers Now March 10, 2015last_img read more

SBGuard AntiRansomware hardens Windows

first_imgSBGuard Anti-Ransomware hardens Windows by Martin Brinkmann on August 30, 2016 in Software – Last Update: May 22, 2018 – 46 commentsSBGuard Anti-Ransomware is a free program for Microsoft Windows devices that hardens the operating system to block ransomware attacks dead in their track.While there are plenty of anti-ransomware tools out there for the Windows operating system, there is little information about hardening the system to block ransomware from installing itself on it.SBGuard Anti-Ransomware tries to change that by offering an on/off solution that applies around 700 Registry entries to the Windows Registry that limit software execution.It injects around 700 registry entries to force Windows Group Policy to use inbuilt software execution restriction capabilities in certain locations and prevent certain file types from executing.Additionally, it blocks Windows Gadgets, and “several other system actions Ransomware will attempt to perform to encrypt the data”.If that sounds awfully vague, it is. One of the main issues with solutions like this is false positives. While the program may very well block most — the company claims all known and many future — ransomware attacks, you may experience issues running or installing legitimate software relying on functionality that is blocked.The only solution provided by the company that creates SBGuard Anti-Ransomware is to turn it off during installation of software to avoid issues related to it.Turning it off on the other hand means no protection while software is installed, so users better make sure the software is legitimate before performing the operation.The installation of SBGuard Anti-Ransomware should not pose any issues even  inexperienced users. Please note that it requires the Microsoft .NET Framework 3.5 to run. Also, you are required to enter an email address on the developer site to download the program. The download link is sent to the email address you enter.The program itself is dead easy to use. Start it with elevated rights after installation, and click on the enable or disable buttons to toggle the protection status of the operating system.There is also a handy restart button. You need to restart the computer before the changes take effect.As mentioned earlier, the program adds a number of restriction mechanisms and modifications to Windows using the Windows Registry. It is highly recommended to back up the Windows Registry, or even better, the whole system disk, before enabling the application’s protective features.The company behind the product released a demo video that showcases how ransomware is blocked after enabling the program’s protection on a Windows computer.SBGuard Anti-Ransomware protects against ransomware threats such as Cryptolocker, CryptoWAll, Teslacrypt, CTB-Locker, Zepto and others according to the company.It also mentions on the product page that it monitors ransomware development and will implement protective measures against new attack forms as soon as they become known.The program does not display notifications right now if the execution is blocked. A future update will introduce the feature and others, such as an option to run the program as a service for advanced security options.Closing WordsSBGuard Anti-Ransomware hardens Windows machines against ransomware attacks. In fact, it protects at least partially against other forms of malicious software as well, but is no replacement for anti-virus programs.The application could use a whitelist feature that enables you to allow programs to run while the protection is enabled.Also, the devs should consider publishing a list of changes that the program makes as many users and most admins won’t install it otherwise.Summary12345 Author Rating3.5 based on 6 votes Software Name SBGuard Anti-RansomwareOperating System WindowsSoftware Category SecurityLanding Page http://www.sydneybackups.com.au/sbguard-anti-ransomware/ Advertisementlast_img read more

ShutUp10 update with Lockscreen tweaks

first_imgShutUp10 update with Lockscreen tweaks by Martin Brinkmann on November 03, 2016 in Software – Last Update: November 19, 2016 – 16 commentsO&O ShutUp10 is one of many privacy tools created specifically for Windows 10’s operating system. All of these programs are designed to block Microsoft’s Windows 10 operating system from collecting and transferring data to Microsoft.Some go farther than that, by blocking advertisement and providing users with options to disable other privacy related settings.O&O ShutUp10 is a well designed program that lists all of its tweaks in a simple interface. Tweaks are filed in categories such as Windows Update, Privacy or Security, and listed with a short description and toggles.Note: O&O ShutUp10 does not need to be installed, you can run it from any location. It does require the Microsoft .Net Framework 4.x though, but that is part of Windows 10.O&O ShutUp10The toggles are color coded. Green indicates that the preferences has been adjusted for privacy, and red that it has not (the default Windows 10 state).Icons at the end of the line indicate whether the tweak is recommended, recommended but with limitations, or not recommended.The difference between the first two is that the list of recommended tweaks usually don’t interfere with system functionality while the latter may. If you disable Internet access of Windows Digital Rights Management for instance, you may not be able to play media that relies on it.A click on any preference opens a small text field below it with a short description of its purpose. It is recommended to make sure that you don’t need functionality before disabling the feature. While you can go ahead and undo the change should you run into any issues, you may save yourself from finding out which setting to restore when you do run into issues.The actions menu at the top enables you to apply changes quickly. You may use it to apply all recommended settings with two clicks, or apply all recommended and limited tweaks.There is also an option to load and save configuration files.The first time you apply a tweak during a session you are prompted to create a system restore point. This is recommended unless you have other means of restoring changes.Changes in version 1.4.1384.1The big new feature in O&O 1.4.1384.1 is the new lockscreen category. It contains four tweaks in total:Disable Windows Spotlight. Windows Spotlight pushes a new image to the lockscreen on a daily basis. Most images are taken from Bing while some may be advertisement (e.g. a great looking video game wallpaper).Disable fun facts, tips, tricks, and more on your lock screen. The feature may display tips about Windows 10 on the lock screen, but also advertisement at times.Do not display last users on lock screen. Hides the most recent users on the lock screen.Do not show user ID on lock screen. Hides the user ID so that it and the password need to be entered to sign in.Closing WordsO&O ShutUp10 is one of the easier to use Windows 10 privacy apps. It offers explanations for each setting, supports System Restore, and ships with recommendations on top of that. While it may not be the most complete software of its kind, it seems to cover all major areas well.Now You: Which privacy tweaks do you consider essential on Windows 10?SummaryArticle NameShutUp10 update with Lockscreen tweaksDescriptionThe updated O&O ShutUp10 privacy software for Windows 10 devices ships with a new lockscreen category among other improvements.Author Martin BrinkmannPublisher Ghacks Technology NewsLogo Advertisementlast_img read more

How to use Digital Gift Cards on Steam

first_imgHow to use Digital Gift Cards on Steam by Martin Brinkmann on October 26, 2017 in Games, Misc – Last Update: January 04, 2018 – No commentsValve added the option to purchase digital gift cards to its Steam gaming platform recently which enables users to add funds to their friend’s account.The Steam platform supported physical gift cards for a long time. You could purchase a Steam gift card in retail outlets and online to add currency to an account’s wallet. The money was then available for purchases on the Steam platform.The digital gift card works differently. Since it is digital, there is no need to purchase it in retail stores or in online stores before use. Another difference is that you cannot buy digital gift cards for yourself as you can simply fill up your wallet directly on Steam without having to purchase a gift card (or use a physical gift card for that).Digital Gift Cards on Steam are designed solely for sending money to a friend on Steam.How to use Digital Gift Cards on SteamYou can purchase $5, $10, $25, $50 and $100 digital gift cards on Steam (different currencies depending on the region you are in of course).You may load the gift card page on the Steam website, or select Store > Gift Cards in the Steam client to get started.The process is made up of three steps:Select the desired gift card from the available selection.Select the friend that you want to gift it.Personalize the gift card with a custom name, message and signature.Review the purchase and select a payment method.An email message is sent to the selected friend, and the new gift card is also highlighted in the Steam client.The following restrictions and rules are in place:Digital Gift Cards can only be given to friends that have been your friend for at least three days.The monetary value of the gift card is added to the friend’s wallet automatically.Money is automatically converted to the user’s currency when the transfer completes.Declined gift cards are refunded, either to the original payment method if supported, or otherwise to your Steam wallet.It is still possible to gift virtual items such as games directly to friends. The new digital gift cards option adds another option to the gifting process.Tip: The Halloween Sale begins today. Check out our Steam Sales tips to make the most out of it.SummaryArticle NameHow to use Digital Gift Cards on SteamDescriptionValve added the option to purchase digital gift cards to its Steam gaming platform recently which enables users to add funds to their friend’s account.Author Martin BrinkmannPublisher Ghacks Technology NewsLogo Advertisementlast_img read more